METIS and studies on sector integration

METIS is an energy system model developed by the French company Artelys specifically for the EU Commission.

The objective of the METIS III project is to enable users of the METIS energy system model to perform in-depth analyses of the transition towards a decarbonised European energy sector, taking into account its interlinkages with the rest of the European economy.

The resulting work streams are twofold:

  1. Update and upgrade of the METIS models and datasets
  2. Delivery of case studies on the long-term evolution of the European energy system, exploring sector integration options all along the energy value chain

The case studies focus on the following topics:

  • Role of gaseous fuels and of the gas infrastructure, both in 2050 and during the transition
  • Need for network infrastructure, new configurations, and remuneration of infrastructure
  • Sectoral integration (in particular with the industry, transport, buildings sectors) to provide flexibility to the energy system, and the enabling role played by digitalisation
  • Holistic approach to the transition, so as to ensure a cost-minimal and secure pathway to a decarbonised economy
  • Remuneration and risks for market participants 

They will be continuously made available at the website of the European Commission: METIS studies (

Case study S5: The impact of industry transition on a CO2-neutral European energy system

In the case study S5 we analysed the impact of industry transition on a CO2-neutral European energy system. Depending on the chosen pathway to decarbonisation of the industry sector a focus on the usage of hydrogen or a focus on electrification of production methods may be viable.

The study shows: Even if Europe’s industry takes the electrification route to a climate neutral future, massive amounts of green hydrogen will be needed to support industry transition. However, if parts of the chemical value chain are offshored and a few products like green methanol, ammonia or ethylene are largely imported, the demand for domestic hydrogen from Europe's industries could be drastically lower.

Multiple European countries could provide the necessary hydrogen according to the results: The largest hydrogen production capacities at competitive prices exist in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and Norway. A large hydrogen transport network will be necessary to deliver the needed amounts from these countries to other hydrogen-demanding countries like Germany.

For the calculations, the researchers used the METIS energy system model developed by Artelys, which can simulate the entire European energy system with a focus on the energy carriers electricity, gas, hydrogen and heat in an hourly resolution. The researchers applied this system model in combination with the FORECAST simulation model, which calculates detailed pathways for decarbonisation of the industrial sector.

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 12.2019 - 12.2023


  • EU-Kommission (DG ENER)

Project Management

  • Artelys France

Participating Fraunhofer Institutes

  • Fraunhofer IEE
  • Fraunhofer ISI