To select sustainable heating solutions for discussion in the Chinese context, in a first step, a long list of 20 sustainable heating technologies was identified, described and discussed with experts from the China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute EPPEI (China). The long list of selected heating solutions contains heating (partly: cooling) technologies and systems, which contribute to a clean heating strategy combining low pollutant emissions and low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Important selection criteria were the following:
- The solutions show a certain degree of innovativeness in combination with promising growth opportunities and a good market diffusion. Nevertheless, some more innovative technologies were included, which might become relevant with a view towards 2030 and beyond.
- Standard solutions, such as gas and oil condensing boilers, were not included in the list due to their climate impact.
- Clean coal technologies (i.e. coal-based technologies with low local emissions, such as particulates), were not included as they continue to generate a strong impact on the climate. Thus, the technologies chosen aim at double benefits for local and global emissions.
- The solutions for which Germany lacks experience (e.g. straw boilers) were not included in the list.
The long list was divided into three main groups, spanning a range from simpler technologies for individual uses to more complex large-scale solutions, especially for urban areas: decentralised heating systems, local district heat (DH), and large DH. Based on the long list, a shorter list of 10 sustainable heating strategies was selected in discussion with experts from EPPEI. These 10 technologies are analyzed in detail in the report of the study. They built the basis for a stakeholder workshop end of November 2019 in Beijing with 150 participants.