Ecodesign Preparatory Study for Batteries

The Ecodesign Directive establishes a framework for setting requirements for energy-related products with the aim of ensuring their free movement within the internal market of the European Union.

Rechargeable electrochemical batteries are the first product to be the subject of a Preparatory Study, which is not included in the Working Plan. However, due to its actuality, the European Commission has highlighted the need for a Preparatory Ecodesign Study on "batteries". This study will examine the feasibility of Ecodesign requirements for this product group. Thereby, the focus is set on batteries for automotive and stationary applications.



The annual market volume for batteries (including lead acid, lithium ions and other batteries) is about 400-500 GWh and corresponds to about 45-60 billion euros. However, it can be assumed that the market will experience further rapid growth in the coming years. This development will be driven primarily by lithium-ion batteries and their use in automotive and stationary applications. More than 350,000 electric vehicles have already been produced and sold in the EU. This number is expected to more than double by the year 2020. Thereby, the production and operation of such automotive or stationary batteries is accompanied by a not insignificant demand for electricity.

The Ecodesign Directive aims to improve the energy efficiency of products such as batteries through a framework for setting requirements for energy-related products, while ensuring the free movement of such products within the internal market of the European Union. To prepare draft implementing measures for products under this Directive, the European Commission shall make a series of analyses and assessments, which are being called Preparatory Studies. The methodology of these studies is described in the Methodology for Ecodesign of Energy-related Products (MEErP).



This study provides the European Commission with a technical, environmental and economical analysis of batteries in accordance with Article 15 of the Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC. It is based on the MEErP and analyses the following areas:

  • Task 1: Scope (Definition, standards and legislation)
  • Task 2: Markets (Volumes and prices)
  • Task 3: Users (Product demand side)
  • Task 4: Technologies (Product supply side, includes both BAT and BNAT)
  • Task 5: Environment & Economics (Base case LCA & LCC)
  • Task 6: Design options (Feasibility and economics of design options)
  • Task 7: Scenarios (Policy, scenario, impact and sensitivity analysis)

Tasks 1 to 4 have a clear focus on data retrieval and initial analysis and Task 5 to 7 have a clear focus on modeling. It is prescribed that Task 1 to 4 can be performed in parallel and Task 5 to 7 sequential.

In addition to the preparatory study, the project covers the support to the European Commission Services:

  • on the impact assessment
  • in the drafting of the standardization mandate


The study was initiated in September 2018 and is expected to be completed by the end of 2019. Reports and other documents related to the study will be published on the study website at


September 2018 to end of 2019


  • European Commission


Vito (Belgium)

  • The Flemish Institute for Technological research (Belgium) is a leading European independent research and technology organisation in the areas of cleantech and sustainable development, elaborating solutions for the large societal challenges of today. VITO’s research agenda tackles the major societal challenges we are facing today. VITO focuses on five different research programmes: sustainable chemistry, energy, health, materials management and land use.

Viegand Maagøe (Denmark)

  • Viegand Maagøe offers communication and consultancy services in the fields of energy, climate and sustainability for public and private organisations and companies. In recent years, VM has carried out 14 review or preparatory studies and 5 impact assessments for DG Energy, DG Growth and Joint Research Centre (DG Environment).