Identifying the economic areas that are under particular pressure to change from an environmental viewpoint is based on a broad screening of the literature that is translated into qualitative and semi-quantitative assessments. Fraunhofer ISI was additionally responsible for a quantitative assessment of the environmental impacts of all sectors of the German economy. This was achieved based on calculations using an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output database (EXIOBASE).
The concrete requirements of structural change are highlighted in case studies that deal with the automotive industry, the chemical industry and the second-life use of battery storage systems. The case studies are based on the analysis of literature and statistics as well as interviews of experts and stakeholder workshops. Fraunhofer ISI coordinated the case study in the automotive industry and made a significant contribution to the case studies of the chemical industry and battery storages. In addition, a literature-based evaluation of historical structural change processes shows which political, economic and social factors determine their course, and what lessons can be learned from this for policy making.