In a first step, three transport markets for passenger and freight services in their regional context are defined: urban, rural, long-distance and extra-European trips and shipments. In these markets, GHG efficiency is driven by three factors: the energy intensity of fuels or electricity, vehicle power train technologies and load factors.
The following vehicle categories and market segments per main transport mode are addressed:
- Road: passenger car, bus and coach, light duty- and heavy goods vehicles.
- Rail: Conventional passenger trains, high speed rail, rail-based urban public transport and freight services.
- Aviation: Civil passenger and freight traffic, excluding small emitters, such as light and sports aircrafts or helicopters.
- Inland navigation and maritime shipping, including short sea and ocean freight shipping, coastal passenger ferries and cruise liners.
A more detailed level of analysis allows for differentiation by basic fuel types, such as petrol, diesel, electricity, kerosene, marine gas oil or heavy fuel oil.
The top level of analysis generates European figures by weighed country values for road, rail and IWW, and by using international data sources for aviation and maritime shipping. Results are shown as indicators for Europe as a whole and not for individual countries. The European scope, however, is kept flexible to allow adding or removing of single countries. In particular, we allow for the removal of UK data. The methodology also allows the inclusion of non-EU countries like Norway and Switzerland. National level data is used for internal calculations where needed, e.g. where European data is not reliable or not available with regular updates.
For aviation and maritime shipping the geographical scope is expanded beyond the European territory in order to capture emissions of entire voyages. In many cases emissions occur outside national territories and as a result these emissions can become unaccounted for. A method to overcome this issue is to allocate emissions and transport performance equally between the country of origin and destination.
In this study we apply a well-to-wheel (WtW) approach to estimate specific GHG emissions from transport modes. This means that emissions from the exhaust (tank-to-wheel) as well upstream- or well-to-tank (WtT) emissions are included. WtT emissions originate from the extraction, transport and refinery of fuels, including fossil fuels and biofuels. For computing TtW emissions the energy content method applies.
The pilot indicators presented in this study include the most recent years with sufficient data availability. Current data covers the period from 2014 to 2018 across all modes.