Battery systems in distribution grids

The aim of this study is to identify possible grid and/or system-related effects of a further progressing, possibly large-scale, installation of decentralised battery systems and to assess whether and which measures should be taken to counteract any problematic effects. The main areas of impact to be considered are as follows:

  • Allocation, levy and fee systems whose revenue and distribution effects are influenced by the penetration of decentralised storage systems and which also provide significant incentives for the use of electricity storage,
  • the load and operation of distribution and transmission systems and related aspects of grid costs and security of supply; and
  • the operation of the conventional power generation system.



A market diffusion model is used to determine the economic benefit of decentralised battery systems on the basis of individual behaviour in order to determine the market uptake and potential of decentralised battery systems in various scenarios. The individual investment decisions are aggregated to the market shares on a national level.

The impact of the market diffusion of decentralised battery systems on different grid and system-related areas (e.g. effects on fees and levies) will be analysed. In addition, current and future fields of application for battery systems are identified and possible effects on the profitability of decentralised batteries are estimated.

In order to estimate the future cost development for different battery technologies, existing models for the cost paths of battery systems at Fraunhofer ISI will be extended to include the relevant components of decentralized battery systems. The necessary model assumptions will be validated in stakeholder surveys. The resulting cost paths are fed back into the analyses of market diffusion and business models for battery systems.


Currently in progress


  • Not yet available


December 2018 to May 2021


  • Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi)


  • Consentec GmbH
  • Stiftung Umweltenergierecht